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SCIENCE

SCIENCE


WHAT IS HYALURONIC ACID?

Hyaluronic Acid, also known as “the water molecule,” is a powerful hydrator that locks in moisture, diminishes the signs of aging and plumps the skin.

A NATURAL OCCURRING SUBSTANCE FOUND in the BODY

Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is a natural occurring substance in the body that plays a vital role in keeping our skin youthfully hydrated. Hyaluronic Acid is powerful humectant (an element that attracts and binds water molecules together) with the amazing ability to hold up to 1000 times its weight in water. As we get older, natural levels of Hyaluronic Acid decrease and our skin loses it moisture.

HYDRATION is the FOUNDATION of HEALTHY SKIN

According to research published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, “One of the main characteristics of youthful skin is its large capacity to retain water, and this decreases significantly as we age.”¹ Skincare scientist believe this decrease in Hyaluronic Acid “accounts for “some of the most striking alterations of the aged skin,”² such as:

  • Visible loss of plumpness, firmness + elasticity,
  • Fine lines + wrinkles
  • Dry + irritated skin

THE WATER MOLECULE in a BOTTLE®

The Water Molecule in a Bottle® is a Hyaluronic Acid serum. Its active ingredient, Sodium Hyaluronate, is a derivative of Hyaluronic Acid that can better penetrate the deeper layers of skin. In skincare, the terms “Hyaluronic Acid” and “Sodium Hyaluronate” are often used interchangeably.

THE SCIENCE of HYALURONIC ACID

Numerous scientific studies validate claims that Hyaluronic Acid is a “miracle moisturizer.” When topically applied to the skin, Hyaluronic acid grabs water molecules out of the environment and binds them to the skin “increasing the water content of epidermis.”¹  This delivers incredible benefits to the skin.

“SIGNIFICANT MOISTURIZING EFFECT"

A study published in the Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology on the “Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans” found “a statistically significant moisturizing effect was observed with hyaluronic acid” and skin treated with HA was “up to 96%” more hydrated than untreated skin.³

LOCKS IN MOISTURE

Not only does Hyaluronic acid moisturize the skin, it keeps the skin hydrated by locking in that moisture. According to clinical observations, applying Hyaluronic acid “forms a protective layer which provides a barrier preventing transdermal water loss.”¹

IMMEDIATE SMOOTHNESS

Hyaluronic acid nourishes dry and cracked skin with moisturizing water molecules. According to researchers, “Hyaluronic acid gives immediate smoothness to rough surfaces”¹ when applied to the skin.  

PLUMPS SKIN

Besides moisturizing and hydrating the skin, the binding of water molecules around hyaluronic acid produces a swelling effect that plumps up the skin, improves firmness and increases pliability.

IMPROVES FINE LINES + WRINKLES

Various studies measuring the effects of topical Hyaluronic acid conclude, “HA was associated with significant reduction of wrinkle depth.”⁴ With one group of researchers reporting a “decrease the depth of wrinkles (up to 40 %.)”³

SAFE ON ALL SKIN TYPES*

Besides being incredibly effective, skincare products, Hyaluronic acid doesn’t feel greasy and is safe on oily skin types. In addition, researchers theorize that because “HA has no species specificity” it “does not pose any risk of allergy.”¹

Sources:

¹ Narurkar VA, et. al. “Rejuvenating Hydrator: Restoring Epidermal Hyaluronic Acid Homeostasis With Instant Benefits.” The Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. January 15, 2016.

² Poetschke, J, et. al. “Anti-wrinkle creams with hyaluronic acid: how effective are they?” MMW Fortschritte der Medizin. May 25, 2016.

³ Jegasothy, SM, et. al. “Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans.” The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology. March 7, 2014.

 ⁴ Pavicic,  T, et al.  “Efficacy of cream-based novel formulations of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights in anti-wrinkle treatment.” The Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. September 10, 2011.

WHAT IS RETINOL?

Retinol is a powerful derivative of Vitamin A,  and synonymous with high end, anti-aging skin care. The molecules in our retinol formula are small enough to penetrate deep into the sub-dermal layer of the skin to benefit the skin on many levels.

RETINOL BENEFITS

Retinol promotes the regeneration of new skin cells. This stimulates cellular turnover as the skin sloughs off its dead or damaged outer layer and replaces it with the fresher, healthier layer of skin cells. This natural exfoliation softens fine lines, repairs hyperpigmentation, makes complexions more radiant and can even shrink the appearance of pores. In addition, Retinol stimulates collagen and elastin production, helping the skin become stronger, more flexible, and firmer.

THE SCIENCE OF RETINOL

Scientific studies demonstrate the “topical application of retinol significantly affects both cellular and molecular properties of the epidermis and dermis,”¹ revitalizing many important skin functions that breakdown as we age.

COLLAGEN SYNTHESIS

When absorbed by the body, retinol is converted into the active form of Vitamin A, retinoic acid. The body uses this retinoic acid to “synthesize collagen”² the proteins responsible for maintaining the strength, flexibility and elasticity of skin. This provides impressive anti-aging results, helping skin look healthier, younger, firmer, and more supple.

CELLULAR TURNOVER

Retinol regenerates new skin cells, triggering cellular turnover which allows the body to naturally exfoliate dead and damaged skin cells that accumulate on the skin’s surface. This cleanses the skin of debris that clogs pores and leads to acne, revitalizes complexion by getting rid of dead and damaged skin cells that leave skin looking dull and splotchy. Exfoliating also minimizes the appearance of aging by smoothing fine lines and diminishing sun spots.

REPAIR SUN DAMAGE

Findings published in the Journal of Dermatological Therapy report “Retinoids are capable not only of repairing photoaged skin at both the clinical and biochemical levels but their use may prevent photoaging.” This means Retinol can help correct hyperpigmentation as well as brown spots that result from UV exposure. Retinol’s ability to stimulate cellular turnover exfoliates minor discolorations away. Retinol also contains a photo protective antioxidant that helps protect against brown spots from forming in the future.

Sources:

¹ Kong R, Cui Y, et al. “A comparative study of the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on histological, molecular, and clinical properties of human skin.” Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. March, 2016.

² Kafi R, Kwak HSR, Schumacher WE, et al. “Improvement of Naturally Aged Skin With Vitamin A (Retinol).” Archives of Dermatology. May, 2007.

³ Singh M1 Griffiths CE, “The use of retinoids in the treatment of photoaging.” Dermatological Therapy. September, 2006.

WHAT IS MORINGA OIL + SACHA OIL?

Moringa oil comes from the Moringa Oleifera Tree, native to the Himalyas. Sacha Inchi oil is extracted from the seeds of the Pracaxi tree (Plukenetia volubilis,) native to the area around the Amazon River.

POWERFUL ANTI-AGING INGREDIENTS

By combining Sacha oil, high in omega 3’s and Vitamin E, with Moringa oil, rich in nutrients, phenols and antioxidants, this anti-aging elixir is equipped with powerful ingredients, scientifically proven to fight free radicals and prevent the breakdown of collagen and elastin.

HYDRATES WITHOUT LEAVING OILY RESIDUE

In addition, these oils are powerful hydrators. The thin chemical makeup of Moringa + Sacha oil allow its molecules to absorb easily, penetrating the deeper layers of the epidermis. This locks in moisture and hydrates the skin without leaving an oily residue on the surface.

ANTIOXIDANT + ANTI-INFLAMMATORY + ANTI-BACTERIAL

Furthermore, its high concentration of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties make Sacha and Moringa oil powerful ingredients for combating a variety of skin conditions, including acne, dry skin, hyper-pigmentation, fine lines + wrinkles, and more.

THE SCIENCE OF MORINGA OIL + SACHA OIL

Moringa oil + Sacha oil are renowned for their high concentration of vitamins, nutrients and phenolic compounds (antioxidants.)

According to researchers published in Cosmetics: “The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier.” ¹

Researchers in the International Journal of Molecular Science elaborate on the role of phenols in topical skincare, explaining, “the most effective way of skin treatment is surface and topical application.” Specifically, “plant phenolic compounds…[such as those found in moringa oil and sacha oil] possess the ability to maintain the skin homogeneity and a proper, healthy look due to effective skin cell renewal, elastin and collagen stimulation and inhibition of excessive melanin synthesis.” ²

THE SCIENCE OF MORINGA OIL

Researchers published in Advances in Dermatology and Allergology note, Moringa leaves are…rich in phenolics and antioxidants like vitamin C, B and A.” After measuring the impact of moringa oil on the skin, the researchers concluded: “topical formulation of moringa extract is capable of revitalizing the skin and reducing signs of skin aging.” ³

They  elaborated on their findings, “It is assumed that the improvement in skin surface parameters can be attributed to the moringa phenolics…and antioxidants…Phenolics offer the best protection against enzymes that cause the breakdown of collagen and elastin in skin.” Other ingredients in Moringa oil “have topical photo-protective outcomes in an increase in protein and collagen as well as DNA content and increased epidermal thickening…” Moringa also “functions as a humectant and increases the water content. Humectants can attract water into the Stratum corneum to soften the skin; this is effective as a moisturizer. All of these investigations collectively support our findings that the active [moringa] cream supports anti-aging properties… revitalizing the skin and reducing signs of skin aging…” ³

MORINGA OIL'S EFFECT ON ACNE

Besides being safe for oily, congested skin, Moringa oil combats acne in additional ways. As mentioned by the authors of The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders, “For acne lesions, the secretion of sebum has a significant negative effect.” Researchers measuring the impact of Moringa Oil on the secrection of sebum explain: “An extract of Moringa leaves was prepared due to strong antioxidant activity.” They found, “The Moringa oleifera cream significantly reduces undesirable skin sebum during winter season in humans.”   

THE SCIENCE OF SACHA OIL

The Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine remarked on the major fatty acids and high concentration of Vitamin E in Sacha Inchi oil. They tested Sacha for its ability to moisturize the skin without leaving an oily residue. Their data concluded: “The skin hydration value significantly increased…after applying sacha inchi oil emulsion…and the overall product satisfaction of volunteers after use was [high.]” ⁵

 Sources

¹ “Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics.” Cosmetics.

²  The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders.The International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

³ “Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream.” Advances in Dermatology and Allergology.

Effect of Moringa oleifera on undesirable skin sebum secretions of sebaceous glands observed during winter season in humans.” Biomedical Research.

“Determination of hydrophilic–lipophilic balance value and emulsion properties of sacha inchi oil.”  Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

WHAT IS KOJIC ACID?

Kojic Acid is an antioxidant derived from Fungi. Kojic Acid is scientifically shown to effectively treat hyperpigmentation.¹ Melanin, the dark pigment responsible for hyperpigmentation such as melasma, freckles, acne marks, and sun spots is produced by the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine. Kojic Acid is able to lighten areas of hyperpigmentation by disrupting the production of melanin.
Kojic Acid is often used to improve the appearance of freckles, sun spots, melasma, acne spots and other forms of hyperpigmentation. Kojic Acid is also commonly used to lighten the overall skin tone.

THE SCIENCE OF KOJIC ACID?

Clinical research supports the use of Kojic Acid in “cosmetic formulations and to treat hyperpigmentation.”² According to researchers published in the journal of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology," kojic acid works in dermatology applications by disrupting melanin skin-pigment biochemistry.”¹  Researchers published in the Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology further elaborate saying that Kojic Acid  offers “safe and nontoxic depigmenting agents with a satisfactory inhibitory effect on melanin formation and tyrosinase activity.”² Specifically, Kojic Acid suppresses tyrosinase, the enzyme that reacts with tyrosine, the amino acid necessary for the production of melanin. In simpler terms, Kojic Acid lightens dark patches of skin by breaking down melanin and preventing the production of melanin.

Besides preventing the production of melanin, Kojic Acid is a favored skin lightening ingredient because of it shape and molecular makeup. According to clinical findings published in Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, Kojic Acid’s “stable derivatives increase skin penetration, which offers better skin lightening.”¹ 

Basically, Kojic Acid has a small molecular composition that allows it to deeply penetrate the skin into the cellular levels of the epidermis where melanin is synthesized, improving its ability to lighten hyperpigmentation.

Sources

¹  Are Natural Ingredients Effective in the Management of Hyperpigmentation? A Systematic Review

² Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

WHAT IS GLYCOLIC ACID?

Glycolic acid is the most popular Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA) utilized in skincare. It is derived from fruits or sugar cane. One reason Glycolic acid is so popular is due to its small molecular size, which allows it deeply penetrate the skin and fit into microscopic spaces that other skin care ingredients are too large to fit in. Glycolic Acid is shown to smooth dry and rough skin, gently exfoliate, moisturize, even out skin tone and minimize the appearance of sun damage.

THE SCIENCE OF GLYCOLIC ACID

According to “Over-the-counter- Acne Treatments: A Review,” a publication in The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, Glycolic acid, and similar alpha hydroxy acids, benefit the skin by “by thinning the stratum corneum, promoting epidermolysis, dispersing basal layer melanin, and increasing collagen synthesis within the dermis.”

GENTLE EXFOLIATOR

By thinning the stratum corneum (outer most layer of epidermis) and promoting epidermolysis, Glycolic acid is a gentle, yet effective exfoliator. It works to remove the outer layer of dead skin cells by dissolving the “glue” such as sebum (the oil your skin produces) that binds skin cells together. Once the dead skin cells have been broken up they are easily brushed away, revealing healthier, smoother, more radiant skin lying below.¹

SKIN REJUVENATION

Glycolic acid doesn’t stop helping once it has broken up dead skin cells and aided in their exfoliation. Glycolic acid is so small the molecule can penetrate the cell wall. Once inside the skin cell, it goes to work triggering the production of collagen and synthesizes dermal Glycosaminoglycan, more commonly known as GAGs. Gags are a part of the skin tissue matrix, along with collagen and elastin. Though Gags are less known compared to collagen and elastin, they are very important for maintain skin health and appearance. They support the protein fibers that make up collagen and elastin. Gags also retain moisture, which supports skin turgidity (bounce.)

This is supported in scientific studies. For example, on study showed “patients that applied 25% glycolic, acid for six months had an approximately 25-percent increase in both epidermal and dermal thickness. “ Furthermore, the study showed “improved quality of elastic fibers, and increased density of collagen.” ¹

Sources

¹ Decker, A., et al.  “Over-the-counter- Acne Treatments: A Review.The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology. May, 2002.